Thursday, January 31, 2008
The BMW Concept X6. Warrant of apprehension. A character: Concept innovation world-wide first of the sport Activity Coupé. BMW as founders of the vehicle category of sport Activity Vehicle (SAV) again presents a consistently again developed concept. Sportiest development of a BMW X of model. The drivingactive Potenzial is particularly strongly stressed. The superior driving dynamics is taken up by the BMWS typical stylistic idiom and visualized in the Design authentically.
The extravagante body Design connects the sporty elegance of a BMW Coupés with the salient BMWS X genes. Wheel orientation, the generous clearance and the voluminoesen wheel housings lend the strong operational readiness level characteristic of BMW X of models to the BMW Concept X6. The BMW Concept X6 orders performance control for singular trace stability and precision in each driving conditions as well as over the intelligent all wheel system BMW xDrive as far far the first vehicle over dynamic. Exterieurdesign: The strong operational readiness level of the vehicle body connects itself with the flat roof process of the Greenhouses. This flowing roof line is likewise a characteristic element of the Coupé silhouette like the short front body overhang, the long wheel base and the long tail overhang. In the Design of the BMW Concept X6 the characteristic BMWS X of genes come to the expression. The optical balance between front and rear wheels, represented in the side view, serves BMW xDrive as reference to the intelligent all-wheel drive. Wheel orientation is the second dominating element of the body Design. Those are muskuloes of formed out wheel housings and the large wheels expression for the stable conditions. The Exterieur is coined/shaped by the tensionful change between convex and concave surfaces. The dynamically rising lateral lineline line and to the rear the increasing distance between shoulder and Schwellerlinie produce a dynamic wedge form. The salient, broad-oriented frontal view shows the expression typical for BMW X of models.
This coined/shaped by the large sized BMWS kidney as air intake with durable staffs, the sharply begun to cut headlights and the clear accentuation of the side panels, which out-step the wheel housings far leave. The large air intakes reveal the high cooling need of the engine, let the vehicle appear optically lower and underline the sportyness of the front. The hood has clearly formed out outlines partitioned by sharp lines, which taper themselves to the BMW kidney. Elegant seeming is coined/shaped also by the bumper elements with December ducks plastic applications in the typical style of the BMWS X of models, painted in car color. The singular form of the D-column expresses strength and stability. The innovative rear light Design stresses those width of the vehicle. The final pipes of the exhaust system positioned far outside and the horizontal lines underline the broad trace. The low-dark vehicle lacquer finish in the contrast to chromelementen symbolizes the sporty-technical character.
High-quality accents set the lateral Schwellerleisten, the chromfarbenen props and the set in fog headlights in the outside air intakes as well as the chromium-plated final pipes. The Unterfahrschutz consists in front and in the back of milled aluminum. Into the rear lights white signal light lines are integrated. The night Design shows homogeneous shining light bodies.
The high-performance Mercedes-Benz C63 AMG is making its North American debut at the Los Angeles Auto Show, open to the public November 16-23, 2007 at the L.A. Convention Center. Following the widely acclaimed launch of the new-generation 2008 C-Class sedan earlier this year, the V8-powered C63 AMG represents an impressive top-of-the-line addition to the popular C-Class model family. The New C63 AMG – Visually and Technologically Distinctive Making its U.S showroom debut in April 2008, the 2008MY C63 AMG is distinguished by unique AMG body styling, 18-inch alloy wheels, sport suspension and high-performance brake system – all designed by AMG specifically for this new model. The C63 AMG can be easily identified by a special front hood with two power domes and a muscular front apron with large air intakes and side air outlets as well as fog lights ringed in chrome. A "6.3 AMG" badge marks each front fender, and contoured side sill skirts carry the aggressive lines of the front end to the rear, while an AMG rear apron with a black air diffuser insert and three pronounced diffuser fins help enhance aerodynamic performance at high speeds. An AMG lip spoiler on the trunk lid and a pair of twin tailpipes completes the exclusive look and sound of this special model. Inside the C63 AMG, drivers are greeted by newly developed AMG leather sport seats with integral head restraints finished in a special cross piping and an AMG three-spoke sport steering wheel with distinctive aluminum shift paddles. The unique "tubular" AMG instrument cluster was developed specifically for the C63 AMG with redesigned analog gauges and red needles. An AMG menu in the central display includes special "Warmup," "Setup," and "Race" modes that can be viewed via the multi-function buttons on the steering wheel. "Warmup" displays engine oil and coolant temperatures, while "Setup" shows the current ESP and transmission shift modes, and for owners who enjoy adjusting their vehicles to even higher limits, "Race" activates a timer that allows the driver to measure lap times. The First Engine Developed from the Ground Up by AMG The C63 AMG is powered by the first engine developed entirely by AMG – a 6.3-liter V8 that produces 451 horsepower and 443 lb.-ft. of torque for breathtaking acceleration times of 4.3 seconds from zero to 60 mph. Built almost completely from a high-strength silicon-aluminum alloy, the AMG 6.3-liter features four valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, bucket tappets (rather than rocker arms) and a variable intake manifold. The cylinder bores feature a twin-wire-arc-sprayed (TWAS) coating, a new process that results in impressively low friction and running surfaces that are twice as hard as conventional cast-iron cylinders. AMG engineers designed the 6.3-liter engine block with an especially rigid bedplate acting as the overall support of the main bearings, cast-in steel reinforcements and a sturdy closed-deck layout in the cylinder head area. The high-flow intake and exhaust ports form a vertical straight line, helping the 6.3 AMG engine rev freely to over 7,000 rpm, yet the highly flexible AMG engine still produces nearly 90 percent of its peak torque at only 2,000 rpm. Power is transmitted to the rear wheels of the new C63 AMG via a seven-speed AMG Speedshift automatic transmission that can be shifted manually by either a conventional lever or Formula-1 style shift paddles on the AMG sport steering wheel. To give performance-minded drivers total control of shifting, the manual mode of AMG Speedshift doesn`t intervene to cause any automatic upshifts – even at max engine speed – or automatic downshifts, even under full load. AMG Speedshift electronic control provides 35% faster gear shifts and torque converter lockup from 1st gear. The new C63 AMG is the very first AMG car with an automatic "throttle-blipping" feature during downshifts. This virtually jolt-free downshifting process reduces load-change handling response, and for motorsports-minded drivers, improves braking in advance of turn-in.
A Razor-Sharp Chassis
The C63 AMG is also the first AMG model with a three-stage ESP system. In addition to its normal "ESP ON" operation, the ESP button on the center console has an "ESP SPORT" mode as well as "ESP OFF." The ESP Sport mode allows for more aggressive driving with higher drift angles, which can make sporty driving more fun, not to mention more helpful on the race track. Mechanically, the C63 AMG chassis features a redesigned front suspension including stiffer shocks and springs all around, with special rebound buffer springs in the front shocks, as well as new bearings, a stiffer stabilizer bar and 1.4-inch wider track. Its speed-sensitive rack-and pinion steering feels even faster than its 13.6:1 ratio, thanks to a modified steering axis and a stiffer insulating disc in the steering column. At the rear, the multi-link suspension has been re-engineered, plus track is a half inch wider with increased negative camber for improved cornering. To handle the increased power of the AMG V8, beefier halfshafts and driveshaft joints are installed. Staggered-width 18-inch wheels (8.5 inches in front, 9.0 at the rear) make room for large AMG vented and perforated four-wheel disc brakes. Front discs measure 14.2 inches in diameter with six-piston fixed calipers, and ample 13-inch discs with four-piston fixed calipers are used at the rear.
AMG Performance Package Designed for the Race Track
For even crisper handling, the AMG performance package includes a limited-slip differential, stiffer suspension, composite (two-piece) perforated and ventilated front disc brakes and an AMG performance steering wheel wrapped in nappa leather. The AMG performance package was designed for owners who are serious about competing on the race track with their C63 AMG.
The New C-Class – A Handsome Family
The C63 AMG joins the new-generation C-Class line that`s larger in almost every dimension than its highly successful predecessor, with a greater emphasis on agility, comfort and safety. With a nod to the recently introduced S-Class sedan, the look of the mid-size C-Class reveals the latest Mercedes design idiom that`s characterized by an edgy interplay of taut lines and wide, rounded surfaces.
Distinctive Sport Models
The AMG-inspired C-Class Sport models can be identified by the iconic three-pointed star in the front grille, a design cue usually reserved for its coupes and convertibles. The new C-Class Sport models features AMG body styling – deeper front and rear aprons as well as under-door rocker panels – and twin-spoke 17-inch wheels of staggered width. The car also comes with sport shocks, springs and stabilizer bars that provide a crisper ride and more than a half-inch lower ride height. Instead of the Luxury model`s traditional four-spoke wheel and burl walnut trim, Sport models come with three-spoke steering wheels and either aluminum (C300) or black Birdseye maple (C350) interior trim.
Optional 4MATIC Four-Wheel Drive
As modern all-wheel-drive systems become even more refined, they are becoming increasingly popular, especially in the luxury car market. With negligible weight and fuel-efficiency tradeoffs, full-time four-wheel-drive systems provide year-round traction and stability benefits on both wet and dry roads. The latest version of the Mercedes-Benz 4MATIC all-wheel-drive system is optionally available on the new-generation C300 Sport and the C300 Luxury model. After making its debut on the new-generation S-Class sedan, the new 4MATIC system features a totally redesigned full-time all-wheel-drive system that`s integrated into the seven-speed automatic transmission. The new system fits right into the standard body and utilizes the existing front suspension – gone are the special suspension parts and wider transmission tunnel that were necessary on earlier 4MATIC systems. The extra gears and shafts that drive the front wheels now weigh only 145 pounds more than the rear-wheel-drive model. Fuel efficiency has been improved, due to a number of innovative measures that minimize the energy needed to turn the extra hardware.
Electronic Controller Replaces Scores of Buttons
Similar to the popular system launched on the S-Class sedan, an electronic controller on the console works like a computer mouse to provide easy, quick operation of many functions that used to require scores of separate buttons and switches. By turning and pressing the aluminum controller, menus and sub-menus on the center-console screen are displayed and selected for the audio system as well as the optional navigation system and integrated phone. The controller is also linked to the rocker switches on the multifunction steering wheel.
A Choice of Audio Systems
Standard equipment in the new C-Class is an eight-speaker, 100-watt Audio 20 system that includes a single-slot dash CD/MP3 player, telephone keypad, an MP3 plug in the glove box and a Bluetooth interface. Optionally available is a Multimedia Package which includes, a 450-watt harman/kardon LOGIC7 audio system featuring Dolby Digital/DTS 5.1 surround sound a 6-disc CD/DVD changer, voice control and COMAND navigation. The LOGIC7 system comes with 12 speakers, including two surround-sound speakers and a sub-woofer. The C-Class includes a MusicRegister feature as part of the Multimedia package, which enables CD "ripping" (saving) to a four-gigabyte hard drive that can store up to 1,000 tracks from an audio CD. A Gracenote database automatically identifies each track with its title, artist, album name and other information. The audio system can also play tracks stored on a data CD, DVD or memory card.
No Need to Ask for Directions with COMAND Navigation
A five-inch color display nestled under a flip-up cover at the top of the center console is standard equipment on the new C-Class. When the car is equipped with the Multimedia package, a power-operated seven-inch display screen slides out and up when the flip-up cover is raised. The navigation system uses a hard drive with map data covering all of North America. In addition to the high-resolution map display at the top of the center console, next-turn navigation instructions can also be shown in the instrument cluster central display.
Renowned Mercedes-Benz Safety
The 2008 C-Class comes with all the safety features that people have come to expect from Mercedes-Benz – from four-wheel independent suspension and four-wheel disc brakes to six air bags, ABS anti-lock, traction control and ESP stability control. In addition, active front head restraints move forward nearly two inches and upward by about an inch in the event of a severe rear collision, helping to support the head and reduce the likelihood of whiplash injuries.
AMG has been a subsidiary of Daimler since 1999 and is located near Stuttgart in Affalterbach, Germany. AMG employs about 600 specialists in development, production and administrative areas. AMG develops each of its models, from the engine and driveline to suspension, brakes, chassis and aerodynamics. Each engine is produced and tested at AMG`s headquarters in Affalterbach, and AMG models are assembled at the main Mercedes-Benz vehicle manufacturing plants. Spanning all Mercedes-Benz model lines, approximately 10,000 AMG models were sold in the United States in 2006. With over 50 percent of AMG sales, the U.S. is the top market for AMG worldwide.
About Mercedes-Benz USA
Mercedes-Benz USA, headquartered in Montvale, New Jersey, is responsible for the sales, marketing and service of all Mercedes-Benz and Maybach products in the United States. In 2006, MBUSA achieved an all-time sales record of 248,080 new vehicles, setting the highest sales volume ever in its history and achieving 13 consecutive years of sales growth. More information on MBUSA and its products can be found on the Internet at www.mbusa.com and www.maybachusa.com. End of Mercedes C63 AMG review.
Nissan’s 480-hp supercar, set to finally arrive in June 2008, promises 3.5 seconds to 60 and at least 185 mph flat-out.
Your recognition of this car might be more vivid if you wedge the word “Skyline” in there somewhere, because that’s what it was called when it first began to register on the radar screens of American speed freaks along about 1989: the Skyline GT-R. This is true even though the Skyline name actually goes back much farther, to distant 1957, when it was first applied to an eminently forgettable little Prince sedan, predating Nissan’s 1966 absorption of that company.
Prince fielded a competition version of the Skyline in 1964—the 2000GT—but the GT-R suffix (for “gran turismo racer”) didn’t appear until 1969, when Nissan made it the centerpiece of a successful racing program over the next couple of years.
But in 1973 the Skyline GT-R disappeared, yielding the limelight to the new Datsun 240Z (a.k.a. Fairlady). The GT-R badge gathered dust until its 1989 revival with the advent of the R32 chassis, earmarked as the foundation for an FIA Group A racing effort, as well as a production sports coupe. The R33 followed the R32 in 1995, and the R33 gave way to the R34 in 1999, each generation a little hotter, each providing an improved basis for race cars, as well as various limited-edition street versions from NISMO, Nissan’s in-house performance division.
Inevitably, these slightly fabulous cars attracted media attention, and awareness grew in markets outside Japan. Including the U.S.—particularly after our March 1991 test of a modestly tweaked gray-market car. With 350 horsepower on tap, that R32 Skyline whooshed to 60 in 4.2 seconds and covered the quarter in 12.9 seconds at 105 mph, acceleration that would have smoked such glamorous contemporaries as the Acura NSX, Corvette ZR-1, Lotus Esprit Turbo, and Ferrari 348ts. Awareness begat gotta-have-it, which begat a growing ground swell of clamor for Skylines in American showrooms.
Over the years a few enterprising individuals figured out ways to get Skylines past the unwinking eye of the government and into American garages. But for most, the Skyline GT-R was an exotic temptation, like Jessica Simpson wriggling around in something slinky. Delicious, and exactly as accessible to everyday guys as the dark side of the moon, making the desire for possession all the more intense.
Well, the waiting is over, or will be come June. And Yankee go-faster junkies who have been salivating over this fabled speed merchant will finally be able to find out if the reality measures up to their fantasies, simply by signing a contract at a friendly Nissan dealer.
And what will they get? Here’s what we know. Uh-oh, check that. Make it: Here’s what we can tell you. See, we’ve already driven a preproduction car, on condition of silence until next month regarding our driving impressions. But the vow of silence regarding mechanical particulars expires now.
Basics. The foundation for the new GT-R will be a chassis dedicated to this application—no commonality, according to Nissan, with the corporate FM architecture, the structure that made a grand entrance on the revived Z car in 2002.
Okay, but there are strong similarities. For one, Kazutoshi Mizuno, the chief vehicle engineer, was the man who also oversaw development of the FM platform. For another, almost all the engine’s mass resides aft of the front-axle center line, just like the FM, for 50/50 weight distribution—although Nissan sources tell us it’s going to be more like 52/48. The unibody is exceptionally sturdy, because the GT-R’s performance capabilities will go well beyond those of any production 350Z, and also because the structure will be handling thrust from all four corners via Nissan’s ATTESA E-TS all-wheel-drive system. Unlike versions of this system in other Nissan vehicles—the Infiniti G35x, for example—the GT-R setup employs a yaw sensor and is capable of instantly transferring torque from side to side, as well as fore-and-aft, as conditions dictate.In normal running, the fore-and-aft power split is mostly toward the rear. In hard acceleration at low speed, the split is 50/50, but beyond that, power delivery to the front wheels doesn’t exceed 30 percent. Grip, delivered by a set of newly developed Bridgestone Potenza RE run-flat tires (255/40R-20 front, 285/35R-20 rear), figures to be exceptional. An intriguing touch with these tires is the pressure medium. Nissan prescribes nitrogen, an old racing trick that stabilizes pressures in hard use.
The GT-R is a two-plus-two design, which adds up to a car of substantial dimensions for this class. Its 109.4-inch wheelbase is 16.9 inches longer than that of the Porsche 911 Turbo, a key development target, and at 183.1 inches, it’s 6.8 inches longer than the Stuttgart rocket, as well as 1.7 inches wider (at 74.6 inches) and 2.8 inches taller (54.0 inches). The BMW 650i and M6 and the Jag XKR are a little bigger, but not much. Nissan calls the car a four-passenger coupe, but the rear-seat accommodations are suited for little kids on short hauls, or for adult people you don’t really like on longer voyages.
With size and all-wheel drive comes mass. Nissan expects the GT-R to weigh about 3800 pounds, 280 heavier than the last 911 Turbo we tested [“Everyday Supercars,” July 2007]. Nevertheless, performance expectations for the GT-R are ambitious: 0-to-60 mph in 3.5 seconds, the quarter-mile in 11.7, top speed north of 185 mph. Those are serious numbers. For contrast, that 911 Turbo did the same sprints in 3.8 and 12.2 seconds, respectively (although an earlier 911 Turbo we tested hit 60 mph in 3.4 seconds).
Propelling almost two tons that quickly requires muscle, and the GT-R has plenty: 480 horsepower at 6400 rpm, 434 pound-feet of torque from 3200 to 5200 rpm—not quite as much torque as Porsche’s 3.6-liter flat-six, but abundant nonetheless and available across a broad range.
The source for all this thrust is a twin-turbo 3.8-liter DOHC 24-valve 60-degree oversquare aluminum V-6 (VR38) with variable valve timing on both cams and plasma-applied coating on the cylinder walls rather than steel liners. Nissan insists this engine is all-new and unrelated to the VQ sixes that propel the Z car, Infiniti Gs, and others, which is interesting since the bore (95.5 millimeters) is exactly the same. The new six is force-fed by a pair of IHI turbos via an air-to-air intercooler. Max boost is 10.2 psi.
This is the first V-6 in the modern GT-R series (the three preceding cars employed inline-sixes), and we think it won’t disappoint anyone except maybe tuners. We say that because the Nissan development team proudly claims it has made the car’s ECU tamper-proof. The objective seems to be to portray the engine as environmentally friendly. Yeah, right. And with a little training, tigers make terrific house pets. But tuners always manage to crack the codes, so for those GT-R owners who will inevitably want more, hang in there.
Power finds its way to the ground via a rear-mounted Aichi Kikai six-speed dual-clutch automated manual transaxle with triple cone synchros. The rear diff is a mechanical limited slip; the front is operated by an electronically controlled clutch. Stability- and traction-control systems are, predictably, standard equipment. The transmission has full automatic and manual modes, and the paddle shifters operate in both, a difference being that in manual mode the selected gear remains engaged until the driver selects another.
Multimode also applies to the suspension, which features monotube Bilstein DampTronic shocks at all four corners that automatically vary damping across three presets—Comfort, for around town driving; Sports, the default setting, a little firmer for daily use; and R, for track use. Front camber and caster are adjustable, but not from the cockpit; you’ll need a shop for that.
Braking, by Brembo, promises to be formidable: 15-inch rotors all around, vented and cross-drilled, with six-piston calipers up front, four-piston calipers at the rear.
Credit for the body design goes to Hiroshi Hasegawa, operating under the watchful eye of Mizuno, who is not only the chief vehicle engineer but chief product specialist as well, the only guy in Nissan product development to hold both titles. Although it’s hard to view this car as beautiful, there’s lots of wind-tunnel work in the design, which pays off with high-speed downforce at both ends as well as a 0.27 Cd, an impressive—and rare—double achievement in the aero arena.
So how much will all this wonderfulness cost? Right now, we don’t know, and neither does Nissan in North America. The current WAG is a base price of about $85,000. That’s rare air, and Nissan insiders admit they’re not sure who’s going to step up, a concern when you’re hoping to sell a thousand a month. They don’t expect to convert Porsche intenders. Rather, the hope is that the GT-R will expand the everyday-supercar market.
Is that a realistic business plan? Time will tell. But the core of the plan is the idea that the GT-R represents 911 Turbo (2007 base price, $123,760) performance at a big discount. To this concept we say—at the risk of stretching our vow of silence a little—amen.
2009 Nissan Skyline GT-R - Specs
VEHICLE TYPE: front-engine, 4-wheel-drive, 2+2-passenger, 2-door coupe
ESTIMATED BASE PRICE: $85,000
ENGINE TYPE: twin-turbocharged and intercooled DOHC 24-valve V-6, aluminum block and heads, port fuel injection
Displacement: 232 cu in, 3799cc
Power (SAE net): 480 bhp @ 6400 rpm
Torque (SAE net): 434 lb-ft @ 3200 rpm
TRANSMISSION: 6-speed manual with automated shifting and clutch
Wheelbase: 109.4 in Length: 183.1 in Width: 74.6 in Height: 54.0 in
Curb weight: 3800 lb
PERFORMANCE (MFR’S EST):
Zero to 60 mph: 3.5 sec
Standing ¼-mile: 11.7 sec
PROJECTED FUEL ECONOMY (C/D EST):
EPA city driving: 15 mpg
EPA highway driving: 22 mpg
by TONY SWAN
So much of the industry waffle, what about the figures? Well, VW remains at the top of the brand leaderboard, having sold just over 1.6 million cars on the European market. GM comes in second with 1.3 million, Ford just 36,000 sales behind in third. Of the top 10 manufacturers only Renault and Peugeot recorded overall falls in sales, although they maintained their respective rankings of fourth and fifth. And the cars? Well, GM, Volkswagen and Peugeot are going to be happy but don't expect the same cheer at Renault. The full results are as follows -
1st: Peugeot 207 (437,505, +105.5%)
2nd: Volkswagen Golf (435,055, +4.5%)
3rd: Ford Focus (406,557, -7.5%)
4th: Opel/Vauxhall Corsa (402,173, +41.7%)
5th: Opel/Vauxhall Astra (402,044, -7.9%)
6th: Renault Clio (382,041, -11.5%)
7th: Fiat Punto (377,989, -5.9%)
8th: Ford Fiesta (300,566, +0.6%)
9th: Volkswagen Passat (300,566, -9.4%)
10th: BMW 3 Series (295,312, +2%)
If you own a collector car, the purchase of a quality car cover can be an important investment. Before making this purchase, there should be ample consideration given to the quality of the car cover itself. Follow these tips while searching for the perfect cover for your perfect car.
1- While looking for a car cover for your vehicle, keep in mind that quality is a factor in this purchase. The better the quality, the better the cover will protect your investment. Look for a cover that is made specifically for your type of car. Many car cover manufacturers offer a variety of pre-made covers for most types of cars. The cover does not need to be custom made for your vehicle, just made for your specific kind of car.
2- If purchase price is not an issue, then it be might be wise to consider a custom-made car cover. This will ensure that the cover doesn't blow away in a strong wind, will have elastic in all the right spots, can have extra layers of protection built in. The custom cover can even be made in a color to match your car or with some custom embroidery that is just for you.
3- The material that the cover is made from is important also. It needs to be breathable, if the cover holds in moisture it will have dire consequences on your paint. The cover is not supposed to be waterproof, it should, however, dry out quickly after a rain, so that the rain spots are minimal on the paint finish.
4- A cover that has several layers of padding is best for the protection of your vehicle. These added layers will protect your car against such tragedies as limbs falling from trees, the neighbors' cats, stray baseballs and the like.
5- Before you place the perfect cover that you have found on your car, make sure it is clean. A dirty car will be scratched and scuffed no matter what quality cover you put on it. However, having a clean car to start with will help to ensure a well-protected car through the long months in storage.
We can't deny that apart from the engines alone, electronics do play an important part on the quest to reach the best mileage cars available with better fuel economy. However, with the ever going onslaught of constant and increasing fuel hike, there's no way that advances made in producing more engines with higher fuel efficiency may far exceeds with the increasing cost of gas.
Much budget and investment have been spent on research and development of better car engines with best fuel economy, which in the end may take years to recoup the cost of initial investment alone: let alone the vast manpower needed for these arduous tasks. Thus, where corners can be cut, manufacturers will, although it must be emphasized that this will not be done at the expense of the safety of the driver, passengers and other road-users.
But are there additions that may be fitted with vehicles to improve fuel economy and make them even more fuel-efficient?
Well, the good news is that there are loads and loads of gas saving devices in the open market and can help improve fuel mileage or increase gas mileage of your car and will work on your car like a charm, so to speak. These products claim to save money on gas and increase fuel efficiency of your car. But the bad news is, most of the so-called gas saving devices that purportedly claim to increase gas mileage of your car are nothing but are subject to advertising hype and thus are a waste of your time.
Hence, there are several ways you need learn to use when it comes to increasing fuel mileage of your car.
1) Electronic Ignition Systems
2) Fuel Catalysts
3) Free-Flow Air Filters
4) Tire Inflation
5) Other Products
Electronic Ignition Systems
This class of accessories really applies to the older vehicles that still run on the traditional contact breaker systems. Those who wish to keep vintage vehicles on the road will find that fitting a contact-less ignition system is the way to go.
Although it is not strictly a fuel-saving device, it ensures that the vehicle stays in tune and retains the fuel economy that a freshly-installed contact breaker system would provide. Minimal maintenance and consistent fuel economy result in increased gas mileage and fuel savings of your car.
Due to the recent increases in fuel prices, we've been getting a lot of response on this method. Suffice to say, fuel catalysts are elements you would put on your gas tank to speeds up the combustion process. This in the end will improve your car fuel efficiency and improve your gas mileage.
Some catalysts can simply be dropped into the fuel tank, while there are some that require to be installed somewhere along the fuel line, between the tank and engine.
A catalyst is a chemical, substance or compound that accelerates a chemical reaction. But it remains unchanged and is not used up during the process. When a catalyst is installed along the fuel system, it speeds up the combustion process, rendering it more complete, and allows for the complete release of energy from fuel combusted.
Installation is pretty straightforward and one-off affair. You'll recover your initial investment spent on catalyst within a short period of time, from the increased gas mileage savings of your car. Catalysts may also be used for the entire life of the vehicle, and are transferable from one vehicle to another.
The more popular fuel catalysts are made of compounds of tin and other precious metals, but the actual formulation remains a commercial secret. They claim to promote smoother engine operation, cleaner exhaust emissions and can increase fuel mileage savings of up to 8%.
Free-Flow Air Filters
Grouped in the same category as the contactless ignition systems, free-flow air filters offer no gas mileage savings over a brand new item. Most filter elements are washable, and can be used over thousands of kilometers. After that, you may need to replace the air filter on regularly basis. According to the report on http://www.extragasmileage.com, studies have shown that replacing a clogged air filter can improve the mileage that you get with your car as much as 10%.
Oxygen in compressed air permeates through the wall of the tire, and inflation pressure is reduced over time. In the process, oxygen oxidizes the rubber compounds in the tire, causing under inflation and deteriorated rubber. Dry nitrogen will can prevent auto-ignition; it will not corrode rims, and can will help the tire to run cooler, resulting in longer tread life. So tire replacement costs go down.
Fuel and lubricating oil additives claim to lower internal engine friction drag and improve combustion respectively. Some may work and some may fail considerably. It is important that the device fitted or the additive used does not destroy the catalytic converter. Neither it should void your new vehicle warranty
By: Mumtaz Shah
A car accident is never the same, similar but never the same. So logically a car accident claim can never be the same. Accidents do on the other hand occur in the millions every year, however making a successful compensation claim is difficult to get right if you don't make the right moves.
All Car Accidents Are Unique
There's one thing you need to beware of and that is accident 'management' companies either attending the scene or hospital. Theses are salespeople who work on a commission basis. You always have the good and the bad ones. Your job would be to distinguish the good from the bad.
99% of the time, these people will want your injury claim. Even if it means by-passing the small print! Another thing to note is, never listen to previous case success stories. What happened in the last case can't be guaranteed in your case. So don't fall for the money, settlement time or success stories.
Tips To Make A Successful Car
Car accident injury claims are major players in the 'personal injury litigation' market. They are straightforward as liability is admitted and vital information is exchanged at the scene. Information such as driver and insurance details, where the accident took place, when and how. If the police attend the scene, both parties will be given a producer, which states that the accident did occur. Further from there it will be logged on the national database for any inquires.
Now For The Secrets...
A 'quality' accident solicitor will explain the procedures in 'full' and then ask if you have any questions. Don't ever say NO! You could be falling into a trap.
Do ask these important questions such as..
- Will I get the 'whole' of my compensation? If yes.. continue
- Will I need to pay a fee? If no.. continue
- Do you recover costs from the other side (i.e. people at fault)? If yes.. continue
- Would I need to pay anyone any money once my claim is settled? If no.. proceed.
Passengers In A Car Accident
Passengers are innocent victims in a vehicle and can be from either, the fault or non-fault side. Passengers are not in-charge of the vehicle at hand. Therefore they can always make a successful compensation claim provided they have been to a hospital or visited a doctor.
A passenger can be in the form of, a husband, wife, child, cousin or a friend, at fault or not, they are entitled to claim compensation. They can make a claim against the people who have hit them whilst in the car.
Liability acceptance for an accident can cause confusion in itself. Do you think it was your fault?
Either way, you can still make a successful claim!
If on the other hand you are the driver and it is your fault, then you won't have any success of making a claim, however, the passengers will.
There are circumstances where compensation payments are reduced for a number of reasons. The most common ones are for not wearing a seat belt, which marginally reduces the payment by 25%. Another major factor is for drink driving. If a passenger knowledgably knew the driver was unfit to drive due to excess intoxication, a reduction will be made accordingly.
There are cases where the driver admits part liability on a proportion basis. Generally it's 50/50, but it needs to be assessed by an investigator who will examine who's at fault before concluding. There are even some cases that result to 80/20.
You DO NOT need to hold back thinking it was your friend's or family's car. They pay insurance premiums every year to ensure if anything happens, they're covered and so are their passengers. You also need NOT WORRY if you were in a taxi, bus, train or any other form of public transport. You can still proceed with an accident compensation claim, as the drivers are insured, as is the taxi, train and bus driver. Companies pay thousands every year in insurance premiums to cover passengers for these unfortunate accidents and injuries.
On speaking to a quality car accident solicitor will you be able to eliminate doubts in your head about payments, fees and procedures!
Tuesday, January 29, 2008
These are the fastest cars based on acceleration (in seconds) from 0 to 60 MPH.
2.6 - 1994 Dauer 962 LeMans
2.7 - 2000 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 Concept
2.7 - 2000 Dodge Hennessey Viper Venom 800TT
2.7 - 1999 Leblanc Caroline
2.7 - 1993 Dauer 962 Le Mans
2.8 - 1996 Renault Espace F1
2.9 - 1991 Audi Avus Quattro
2.9 - 1997 Callaway C7 Corvette
2.9 - 1997 Dodge Viper GTS-R
3.0 - 2003 Bugatti 16/4 Veyron
3.1 - 2006 Mosler
3.1 - 1995 Ford GT-90
3.1 - 1993 Jaguar XJR-15
3.1 - 1998 Koenigsegg CC
3.1 - 1991 Lotec C1000
3.1 - 1991 McLaren F1
3.1 - 1995 Yamaha OX99-11
3.2 - 2002 Koenigsegg CC 8S
3.2 - 1992 Bugatti EB110 SS
3.2 - 1996 Quadraduce
3.3 - 1997 McLaren F1
3.3 - 2001 Saleen S7
3.3 - 1987 Vector Avtech WX3
3.4 - 1992 Bugatti EB110 GT
3.4 - 1985 Koenig Competition Evolution
3.4 - 1994 Schuppan 962CR
3.4 - 1987 Westfield SEI
3.4 - 1997 Dodge Viper Venom 600 GTS
3.5 - 2002 Pagani Zonda C12-S 7.3
3.5 - 2002 FERRARI ENZO
3.6 - 2002 Lamborghini Murciélago
3.6 - 2003 Ferrari Enzo
3.6 - 2001 Lamborghini Diablo
3.6 - 1997 Porsche 911 GT1
3.6 - 1987 Porsche 959
3.6 - 1997 RUF Porsche CTR-2
3.7 - 1991 BMW Nazca C2
3.7 - 1996 Ferrari F 50
3.7 - 1994 Lamborghini Diablo SE30 Jota
3.7 - 1996 Porsche 911 GT2
3.8 - 2003 Dodge Viper SRT-10
3.8 - 2000 Porsche 911 Turbo
3.8 - 1997 Campagna T-Rex
3.8 - 1992 Jaguar XJ220
3.8 - 1996 Lamborghini Diablo SV
3.8 - 1998 Lotus GT1
3.8 - 1994 Ultima Spyder
3.9 - 2006 Dodge Viper
3.9 - 2001 B. Engineering Edonis
3.9 - 2003 Viper SRT/10
3.9 - 1987 Ferrari F 40
4.0 - 2002 Chevrolet Corvette Z06
4.0 - 2000 Dodge Viper ACR Coupe
4.0 - 2001 Porsche Carrera GT
4.0 - 2003 Porsche 911 GT2
4.0 - 1993 Lamborghini Diablo SE30
4.1 - 2001 Ferrari 550 Barchetta
4.1 - 1990 BMW Nazca M12
4.1 - 1993 Lamborghini Diablo VT
4.1 - 1996 Lamborghini Diablo Roadster
4.2 - 2000 BMW Z8
4.2 - 2000 Ferrari 360 Modena
4.2 - 2002 Ferrari 575 M Maranello
4.2 - 1994 TVR Cerbera
4.2 - 1985 Vector W8 Twin Turbo
4.3 - 2003 Porsche 911 GT3
4.3 - 1996 Bugatti EB112
4.4 - 2002 Aston Martin Vanquish
4.4 - 2002 Lotus Esprit V8
4.4 - 1988 Cizeta Moroder V16T
4.4 - 1997 Dodge Viper GTS
4.4 - 1997 Gillet Vertigo
4.4 - 1996 Mega Monté Carlo
4.4 - 1996 Porsche 911 Turbo
4.4 - 1996 Spectre R42
4.4 - 1990 TVR Griffith
4.4 - 1996 Vector Aeromotive M12
4.5 - 2003 z06 Corvette
4.6 - 1996 Dodge Viper RT/10
4.6 - 1994 Ferrari F 512 M
4.6 - 1996 Ferrari F 355 GTS
4.6 - 1996 Ferrari F 355 Spider
4.6 - 1982 Lamborghini Countach
4.7 - 2003 Mercedes-Benz SL600
4.7 - 1992 Aston Martin Vantage
4.7 - 1996 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1
4.7 - 1997 Ferrari F 550 Maranello
4.7 - 1985 Isdera Commendatore
4.7 - 1996 Lotus Esprit S4S
4.7 - 1997 Rinspeed Mono Ego
4.8 - 1997 Chevrolet Corvette C5
4.8 - 1996 Lotus Esprit V8
4.8 - 1997 Panoz Roadster
4.9 - 2002 Acura NSX
4.9 - 1994 Chaterham Seven HPC
4.9 - 1989 De Tomaso Guara
4.9 - 1996 Ferrari F 355 Berlinetta
4.9 - 1996 Ford Mustang Saleen S351
4.9 - 1997 Italdesign Scighera
Prices for auto insurance can vary by hundreds of dollars between companies, so it pays to shop around. You should get several quotes before you buy a policy. Don't shop price alone, service is just as important as price. The company you select should offer both good prices and quality service. Auto insurance is an investment and you should feel comfortable about your provider. Quality service may cost a bit more. You should try to balance the service and price. Nowadays, most major companies offer comparable quality customer service, of course they want your business.
Buy a "Low Profile" Car.
Before you buy a new or used car, check into insurance costs. Cars that are expensive to repair, or that are favorite targets for thieves, have much higher insurance costs.
Take Advantage of Low Mileage Discounts.
Some companies offer discounts to motorists who drive fewer than a predetermined number of miles a year.
Consider Insurance Cost When Making a Move.
Costs tend to be lowest in rural communities and highest in cities where there is more traffic congestion.
Find out about Automatic Seat Belt or Airbag Discounts.
You may be able to take advantage of discounts on some coverages if you have automatic seat belts and/or airbags.
Ask About Anti-Lock Brakes.
Anti-lock brakes improve steering control and stability when a car is brought to a stop, thus reducing accidents. Some states, including Florida, New Jersey and New York, require insurers to give discounts for cars equipped with the brakes and some insurers have a nationwide discount in place.
Inquire About Other Discounts.
Some insurers offer discounts for things like no accidents in three years, drivers over 50 years of age, driver training courses, anti-theft devices, good grades for students and having more than one car insured with that company.
Tips For Buying Used Cars
A new driver is always better off buying a used car instead of a new car. With the used car, you will be able to refine your driving skills and thus be able to buy a better and more expensive new car.
The main reason people prefer buying used cars today is that it is available at a lower investment; lower depreciation and its financing rates have considerably reduced. Another advantage of buying a used car is that you can afford a luxury car at a reasonable rate and with the developed used car market of today, you are sure to find the used car you were always looking for.
All things in life come with its bad side; and so do used cars. They usually call for higher maintenance and are more susceptible to frequent breakdowns. This is why it is better to follow these tips for buying used cars.
The most important point to bear in mind is to decide on your budget before looking for the car. This helps you avoid going over your budget when buying your used car. Don’t forget to add insurance and other running costs to your budget for your used car.
It is not possible to be very specific when looking for a used car. If you want a specific model, color or a car with a certain mileage or specification, it may be difficult to find such cars at a bargain. However if you are willing to settle for something similar to the car you have in mind, you are sure to have a wider choice of used cars to choose from.
When buying the used car from a dealer or an individual, it is important that you find out the reason for selling the car, how much the car has been used and permission to have the car inspected by a car mechanic before buying the used car. It is only if the mechanic approved of the car should you consider buying the used car.
Sometimes though individual sellers may permit you to have the car inspected by a mechanic, a used car dealer may not be so obliging. In such circumstances, you have to do some inspection of your own on the car. Check the engine for smoothness on starting and no hesitation when accelerating. On looking at the chassis of the car, you will be able to know if the car has met an accident or not.
Check the trunk, hood, doors, the condition of the battery and the wheel alignment of the car. The air conditioning, headlights and indicators should all be in working order. Once this is done, take the car for a test drive to get a feel of the car and thus, help you decide whether or not to buy the car.
The next thing to do is to ensure the paperwork is in order. The registration book should be up to date, the taxation book should show that the lifetime tax has been paid by the original owner of the car, insurance should be intact and don’t forget the invoice for details for engine no., chassis no., date of delivery and if the car was financed or not.
If everything is intact, negotiate on the price for the used car while bearing the condition of the car in mind. If there are some repairs to be done, the price of the car has to be reduced accordingly. And once the sale is done, ensure that the ownership papers are transferred to avoid future confusions.
Mark Robinson writes for http://auto-loans.guidefin.com
Here is a checklist to help you evaluate an old car:
- First, and most important, check the papers and verify the credentials of the previous owner. If the car has been used for a company or taxi, its mileage may be false and its care minimal. Ensure that the papers are not duplicates, as many stolen cars have such papers. Speak to the previous owners or to the dealer who has been servicing the car. If your seller can't give you this information something may be fishy. Do not part with your money till you are absolutely sure. The registration paper will also tell you if there have been one or more previous owners. If there are more than two, it may be a bit risky.
- Check for accidents. Peer at the left and right fenders from the front and rear to see if the lines and curves are straight. Check that there are no deviations in the fitting of the doors, bonnet and boot. Look for faded paint. Look under the car for welding within the chassis or suspension parts. Also check for rust. It costs little to get your neighbourhood mechanic to also give you an opinion. If it looks suspicious walk away.
- Check the mileage the car has done. The odomoters can sometimes be fiddled with so look for scuffed brake and accelerator pads or worn gear levers to give you clues. Try to get a small car with less than 50,000 Kms on the clock or a larger car with less than 80,000.
- Check the engine. Start the cold engine and check for black smoke out of the exhaust as it accelerates. Also open the oil cap while the engine is running to see if there are any puffs of smoke blowing by the pistons. If there is smoke, the pistons and rings are worn. Don't touch it. A useful trick is to pull out the oil dipstick and rub the oil between your thumb and finger as if you know that some scoundrels put thick oil or even sawdust in the lubes to hide the worn engine. Even if you can't tell the difference it makes you look knowledgeable.
- Check the paint, and tyres. Original paint is a big plus but no car can be unscratched in Indian traffic, so a good repainting is acceptable. Check that the tyres are not worn or retreads. Start life in your new old car with decent tyres, as a new set or a pair is not very expensive so deduct the cost from the buyer price. If the wheel rims are dented it might have been in an accident. New batteries usually last for over two years. If it is new, the owner will have the guarantee card.
- All cars now have AC and power steering and not much value is attached to accessories, so the price of an LX model and VX model are not far apart. If the music system is not working, consider that it must be dead and deduct about Rs. 5000 from the transaction price.
- Test drive the car and check the left and right hand steering, brakes, cornering and handling at speed. Also check for the effectiveness of the AC and listen for rattles.
Popular Websites for Checklist for a Used Car & Buying Used Cars Questions Checklist
We've researched the web and found some of the most popular sites on Buying Used Cars Questions Checklist and Checklist for a Used Car. Here they are!
- Checklist For A Used Car
- Buying Used Cars Questions Checklist
- List Of Questions To Ask When Buying A Used Car
- Buying Used Cars Checklist
- Buying New Versus Used Car
- Used Car And Truck Buy Checklist
- Negotiating Tips Buying Used Car
- Good Used Truck Or Rv Inspection Checklist
- Buying The Cheapest Used Cars
- Check List For Buying A Used Car, Rv Or Truck
- Checklist For A Used Car
- Buying Used Cars Questions Checklist
- List Of Questions To Ask When Buying A Used Car
Monday, January 28, 2008
- Turbos reclaim energy that would otherwise been dumped overboard in the form of heat, by using exhaust gasses to spin a turbine, which in turn spins a compressor, which compresses the intake air.
- Compresses intake air makes more power, because it allows you to burn more fuel per power stroke of the engine, and because it helps scavenge the engine.
Side Note: The new, compressed, intake charge "blows out" the remaining exhaust gases.
- The amount of work done by a turbo's turbine depends on the amount of gas flow through it, and the pressure differential across it.
- You can improve the turbine pressure differential by installing an exhaust system with a higher flow capacity than stock. It's impossible to have "too much" exhaust flow downstream of the turbo.
- The intake compressor works best when it has been specifically sized for an engine's flow requirments and boost levels.
- Intercoolers are our friends. They reduce the temperature of the compressed intake charge after the compressor has heated it.
- An intercooler is only good as the air flow into it and out of it!
- Wastegates limit boost levels by acting as a "rev limiter" for the turbo.
- "Boost creep" indicates a wastegate that is too small.
- High boost motors require good ignition systems. Most top end stumbles and misses are ignition problems.
If you're looking for ways to improve the stability and handling of your car, here's a few.The most common method is to replace the existing rims with bigger diameters rims and tires. If bigger tires are insufficient, then try installing shorter absorbers and springs. The lower the car, the surer the handling. To gain even better handling, combine this with performance shocks that allow for height adjustment and the quality of the shock absorber. Another alternative would be the installation of anti-roll bars. This device works by balancing out the load difference between the tires when the vehicle is taking a corner.
Ever wondered why manual cars have a clutch pedal while automatic cars don't? Well here is what a clutch does. When you step on the clutch pedal in a manual car, the clutch disconnects the engine from the transmission to allow the car to change gears and then it connects again allowing the transmission to resume and powers the car at a new speed. All that is done in a split second, the automatic does the exact same thing but it does it all, by auto transmission itself. You don't need to do anything and that's why you don't have a clutch pedal.
I'm sure you would have heard the term alternator before. Do you know what it does? The alternator generates electrical current that's stored in the battery and is used to start the car and run all electrical equipment in the car. Alternators generate alternating current (AC) which is converted to direct current (DC). The current is then fed to the battery. When it's generating current, its called charging. Therefore when a spoilt alternator stops charging, the car battery will be forced to supply the electricity and eventually the battery will go flat. A faulty alternator needs immediate attention
Shock Absorber (SA)
Did you know your car's shock absorbers have to be checked annually or every 20,000km? Good shock absorbers give you comfort and safety. They absorb vibrations off your car caused by uneven roads and driving conditions. Worn off shock absorbers cause vehicle instability, bad road handling and pulls the car to one side and this could cause an accident. If you notice that your shock absorbers are leaking or your tire wear is uneven, chances are, that your shock absorbers are worn out and need to be replaced. You should have your shock absorbers checked by a certified shock absorber inspection center.
The radiator in your car keeps your engine cool and needs water to function. All new cars have a reservoir system, which is a plastic bottle that holds extra supply of water and it's connected to the radiator. So this way you won't have to open the radiator cap when refilling. Always try to use a 50/50 mixture of coolant and water to fill or top off the cooling system. Important reminder: NEVER EVER ADD COOLANT TO A HOT ENGINE. If your car needs more liquid, wait about 20 minutes until the engine has cooled down to avoid the possibility of being scalded or worst - cracking your engine block.
Opening A Radiator Cap Safely Now if your car doesn't have a coolant reservoir, don't rush out & buy a new car just because you don't know how to open your radiator cap. Never try and remove a radiator cap from a hot engine because the escaping steam can scald you. If your engine is still warm, place a cloth over the radiator cap and unscrew slowly about (90 degrees). This allows the pressure to escape. Otherwise proceed to unscrew the cap and tilt the cap away from you when removing it. If the liquid inside is below the fins of the radiator or if you don't see any liquid at all, then the level is too low. Proceed to add water or a 50/50 mix of coolant & water into your radiator. If you notice that you have to top-up water often, your radiator could possibility have a crack in it.
CAR CARE TIPS Air- Conditioning
All cars these days come with air conditioning. There are 6 basic components in this system, the compressor, the condenser, the receiver-drier, the thermostatic expansion valve, the evaporator and the refrigerant. The gas used in the system is known as "R-134A". It is environmentally friendly as it does not contain any ozone depleting gas. When there's no cool air coming out of your AC vent, it could be due to one of many reasons. Please get a certified AC technician to check your vehicle immediately and remember, it is good practice to always have your AC system checked annually. By the way, did you know that you use less petrol when your AC is switched on, because wind resistance from open windows causes greater power loss..